Ecotoxicology and Weather Edited by P. Bourdeau, J. A. Haines, Watts. Klein and C. R. Krishna Murti @ 1989 SCOPE. Published by John Wiley & Sons Limited
Fate and Undesirable Effects of Pesticides in Egypt
A. H. EL-SEBAE
5. six. 1
An overview from the status from the pesticides utilized in Egypt is usually presented in a case study. The fate, circulation, and adverse effects of the traditionally used pesticides will be discussed. Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides and structurally related derivatives are found being highly persistent and biomagnified in the environment. However , the OP insecticide Leptophos was shown to be quite persistent and liable to end up being stored in lipoid tissues. In addition , the problems resulting from acute, semi-chronic degree of toxicity of the insecticides used are reported. five. 7. 2 ECOLOGICAL ELEMENTS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN EGYPT
Egypt is a semi-arid country where six million acres (2. 4 million hectares) of arable terrain lie in the Nile Lake delta and narrow valley. This irrigated land is merely 5-711/0 the whole area of the country, while the relax is a pure desert. of Additional agricultural activities in the huge deserts are limited to some oases based on underground drinking water sources, and the only rainwater helpful for cultivation is confined to the northwestern coast along the Mediterranean, exactly where only about 100000 acres (40000 hectares) are cultivated. The annual Lake Nile input is sixty billion cu metres. Approximately above one-third of that total flows towards the Mediterranean Sea. An additional third is utilized for irrigation, and the snooze is lost in vaporization, runoff, and leaching into the water desk. The Nile water arises from the African plateau and crosses the following eight countries before getting Egyptian area: Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Zaire, Rwanda and Burundi. Whilst flowing through these countries, the Earth River is loaded with various types of pesticides and many other impurities. Thus that arrives in Egypt following already getting polluted based on a pollutants, such as persistent chlorinated pesticides.
Ecotoxicology and Climate
The majorityof the 50 millioninhabitantsf Egyptlivein crowded ities o c and neighborhoods along the filter green remove of area beside the River Nile and its north delta around the capital, Cairo. The Nile watercourse is therefore used for water sources and transportation, as well as for commercial and activities. The river is also somewhat used for disposal of some agricultural waste water, plus some industrial waste materials. In this densely populated and limited area, more than 30000 metric considerations of developed pesticides will be imported and used each year. More than 70070 these insect poison are insecticides of used to control natural cotton insect pests, especially the leaf and bollworms. This kind of programme is very important to protect organic cotton, which is the main Egyptian money crop. To regulate these bugs, aerial spraying is used to make use of more than 73% of the pesticides or herbicides, a method which is particularly harmful to the residents and nontarget organisms. Such congestion makes it difficult to put into action an evacuation or re-entry programme. Additionally, herbicides, fungicides, fertilizers, molluscicides, food additives, and artificial dyes and other chemical contaminants are present inside the Egyptian environment. The latest agricultural development plans choose the side to side and up and down intensified condensed agriculture, which might require the use of more pesticides and other agrochemicals and which in turn thus might magnify the spectrum and magnitude of environmental air pollution and risks of such chemical brokers. 5. 7. 3 STATUS OF INSECT POISON USED IN EGYPT
In Desk 5. several. 1, the area of discipline crops cured with insect poison during the period 1951-1981 is indicated. The region treated to regulate cotton bollworms was more than expected since it shows 3-4 sprays per season in the area of cotton Table 5. 7. 1 Area of field plants treated with...
References: Ecotoxicology and Climate
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