The Past, Present, and Future of Pesticide Work with and Bans

Home - The Past, Present, and - The Past, Present, and Future of Pesticide Work with and Bans

28.08.2019-722 views -The Past, Present, and

 The Past, Present, and Way forward for Pesticide Work with and ?uvre Essay

Ecotoxicology and Weather Edited by P. Bourdeau, J. A. Haines, Watts. Klein and C. R. Krishna Murti @ 1989 SCOPE. Published by John Wiley & Sons Limited

5. 7

Fate and Undesirable Effects of Pesticides in Egypt

A. H. EL-SEBAE

5. six. 1

INTRODUCTION

An overview from the status from the pesticides utilized in Egypt is usually presented in a case study. The fate, circulation, and adverse effects of the traditionally used pesticides will be discussed. Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides and structurally related derivatives are found being highly persistent and biomagnified in the environment. However , the OP insecticide Leptophos was shown to be quite persistent and liable to end up being stored in lipoid tissues. In addition , the problems resulting from acute, semi-chronic degree of toxicity of the insecticides used are reported. five. 7. 2 ECOLOGICAL ELEMENTS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN EGYPT

Egypt is a semi-arid country where six million acres (2. 4 million hectares) of arable terrain lie in the Nile Lake delta and narrow valley. This irrigated land is merely 5-711/0 the whole area of the country, while the relax is a pure desert. of Additional agricultural activities in the huge deserts are limited to some oases based on underground drinking water sources, and the only rainwater helpful for cultivation is confined to the northwestern coast along the Mediterranean, exactly where only about 100000 acres (40000 hectares) are cultivated. The annual Lake Nile input is sixty billion cu metres. Approximately above one-third of that total flows towards the Mediterranean Sea. An additional third is utilized for irrigation, and the snooze is lost in vaporization, runoff, and leaching into the water desk. The Nile water arises from the African plateau and crosses the following eight countries before getting Egyptian area: Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Zaire, Rwanda and Burundi. Whilst flowing through these countries, the Earth River is loaded with various types of pesticides and many other impurities. Thus that arrives in Egypt following already getting polluted based on a pollutants, such as persistent chlorinated pesticides.

359

360

Ecotoxicology and Climate

The majorityof the 50 millioninhabitantsf Egyptlivein crowded ities o c and neighborhoods along the filter green remove of area beside the River Nile and its north delta around the capital, Cairo. The Nile watercourse is therefore used for water sources and transportation, as well as for commercial and activities. The river is also somewhat used for disposal of some agricultural waste water, plus some industrial waste materials. In this densely populated and limited area, more than 30000 metric considerations of developed pesticides will be imported and used each year. More than 70070 these insect poison are insecticides of used to control natural cotton insect pests, especially the leaf and bollworms. This kind of programme is very important to protect organic cotton, which is the main Egyptian money crop. To regulate these bugs, aerial spraying is used to make use of more than 73% of the pesticides or herbicides, a method which is particularly harmful to the residents and nontarget organisms. Such congestion makes it difficult to put into action an evacuation or re-entry programme. Additionally, herbicides, fungicides, fertilizers, molluscicides, food additives, and artificial dyes and other chemical contaminants are present inside the Egyptian environment. The latest agricultural development plans choose the side to side and up and down intensified condensed agriculture, which might require the use of more pesticides and other agrochemicals and which in turn thus might magnify the spectrum and magnitude of environmental air pollution and risks of such chemical brokers. 5. 7. 3 STATUS OF INSECT POISON USED IN EGYPT

In Desk 5. several. 1, the area of discipline crops cured with insect poison during the period 1951-1981 is indicated. The region treated to regulate cotton bollworms was more than expected since it shows 3-4 sprays per season in the area of cotton Table 5. 7. 1 Area of field plants treated with...

References: Ecotoxicology and Climate

Abo-Elamayem, M., Saad, M. A., and EI-Sebae, A. H. (1979). Water pollution with organochlorine insect sprays in Egyptian lakes. Proc. of the Internat. Egyptian-German Workshop on Environment Protection from Problems of Insect poison, Alexandria, Egypt. March 24-29, pp. 94-108. Aly, Osama A., and Badawy, M. I. (1981). Organochlorine insecticides in selected agricultural areas in Egypt. Proc. of the Internat. Conference, seminar on Mgmt. of Indust. Wastewater in the Developing International locations, Alexandria, Egypt, March 28-31, pp. 273-281. Askar, A. (1980). Monitoring of insect poison in Pond Brullus. Meters. Sc. Thesis, Alexandria University or college. Cole, L. K., Sanborn, J. Ur., and Metcalf, R. M. (1976). Inhibited of hammer toe growth by aldrin and the insecticides destiny in the soil, air and wildlife of any terrestrial version ecosystem. En vir. Entomol, 5, 538-589. Edwards, C. A., and Thompson A. R. (1973). Pesticides and the Soil Fauna, Residue Opinions, Gunther, F. A. (ed. ), forty five: 1 . EI-Mofty, M., Reuber, M., EI-Sebae, A. They would., and Sabry, I. (1981). Induction of neoplastic lesions in toads, Bufo regularis, with niclosamide. Proc. of Internat. Conference, seminar on Avoidance of Work-related Cancer, Helskinki, April 21-24. EI-Sebae, A. H. (1985). Management of Pesticide Residues in Egyptian Environment, Suitable Waste Supervision for Producing Countries, Kriton Curi, (ed. ), Plenum Publishing Corp., pp. 563-577. EI-Sebae, A. H., and Abo-Elamayem, M. (1978). A survey of expected toxins drained towards the Mediterranean in the Egyptian Place. Proc. in the XXXVI Our elected representatives and Plenary Assembly from the Internat. Comm. of Sci. Explor. with the Mediterranean Sea, Antalya, Turkey, pp. 149-153. EI-Sebae, A. H., Kassem, Elizabeth. S., and Gad, A. (1969). Tenacity and break down of dalapon and a couple of, 4-D in three garden soil types. Assiut. J. Agric. Sciences, 3, 359-366. EI-Sebae, A. They would., Soliman, S i9000. A., Abo-Elamayem, M., and Ahmed, And. S. (1977). Neurotoxicity of organophosphorus insecticides: Leptophos and EPN. L. Environ. Sci. and Hlth, B12 (4), 269-288. EI-Sebae A. L., Ibraheim, S i9000. M., EI-Feel, S. A., and Srivastava, S. In. (1978). Microencapsulation of methomyl, zinc phosphide and copper mineral sulphatemethodology and activity. Last Internat. Congress of Pesticide Chem. Proc. (IUPAC), Zurich, July, pp. 562-566. EI-Sebae, A. L., Soliman, T. A., and Ahmed, N. S. (1979). Delayed neurotoxicity in sheep by the phosphonothioate insecticide Cyanophenphos. J. Presque. Sci. and Hlth, B14 (3), 247-263. EI-Sebae, A. H., Soliman, S. A., Ahmed, D. S., and Curley, A. (1981). Biochemical interaction of six OPERATIVE delayed neurotoxicants with a lot of neurotargets. M. Environ. Sci. and Hlth, B16, 463-474. EI-Sebae, A. H., Morsy, F. A., Moustafa, Farrenheit. I., and Abo-Elamayem, Meters. (1982). Impact on plant leaf wettability of insecticidal productivity. Proc. in the Second EgyptianHungarian Conj. about Plant Safeguard, Alexandria College or university, pp. 295-403. EI-Sebae, A. H., El-Bakary, A. H., Le Paturel, J., Kadous, E., and Macklad, M. F. (1983). Effect of photoperiodism on seafood susceptibility to insecticides. Proc. of the Internat. Conj. in Photochemistry and Photobiology, volume. 2, pp. 961-966. EI-Zorgani, G. A. (1980). Elements of organochlorine pesticides in fishes in Sudan. T. Environ. Sci. and Hlth, B15 (6), 1090-1098. Ernst, W., Macklad, F., EI-Sebae, A. L., and Halim, Y. (1983). Monitoring of organochlorine compounds. I. A few marine creatures from Alexandria Region. Proc. Int. Conj. Env. Cara. Agrochem, vol. 1, pp. 95-108.

Fortune and Undesirable Effects of Pesticides in Egypt

371

Gish, C. Deb. (1970). Organochlorine insecticide residues in soils and garden soil invertebrates from agricultural lands. Pesticides Keep an eye on J, a few (4), 241-252. Hegazi, And., Menib, Meters., Belal, M., Amer, They would., and Farag, R. H. (1979). The result of a few pesticides on asymbiotic N2-fixation in Egyptian soil. Archs. Environ. Contam. Toxicol, almost eight, 629-635. Kamel, A. M., and EI-Sebae, A. H. (1968). A result of temperature and humidity around the effectiveness of insecticide deposit, Alex. T. Agric. Cabeza de ganado., 16, 59-66. Khalifa, M. A. S i9000., Tag EI-Din, A., Komeil, A. A., Desheesh, Meters. A., and Helwa, M. A. (1980). Pesticides and soil enzymes human relationships. 1Ileffects of some organophosphates and carbamates on garden soil dehydrogenase activity. Proc. of Fourth Que contiene! on Microbiology, Cairo, Egypt, December 24-28. Macklad, N., EI-Sebae, A. H., Halim, Y., and Barakat, M. (1984a). Monitoring of chlorinated pesticides in fish samples from Pond Maryout and Alexandria Hydrodrome. Bull. in the High Inst. of General public HUh, Alexandria Univ., vol. XIV (2), pp. 161-173. Macklad, N., EI-Sebae, A. H., HaIim, Y., and EI-Belbesi, Meters. (1984b). Monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbons in some fish types from Lake Edku and Abu. Quir Bay. Bull. High Inst. of Community HUh., Alexandria Univ., volume. XIV (4), pp. 145-157. Othman, Mohamed A. H., Antonious, G. P., Khamis, A., and Tantawy, G. (1984). Dedication of elements of fIucythrinate, cypermethrin, dimethoate, and methomyl on tomato and diet programs plants. Summary in: Seminar on Integrated Pest Mgmt. and Rationalization of Pesticide Use in the Arab Countries, Algeria, Sept. 16-20. Raymond, D. E., and Alexander, M. (1976). Plant subscriber base and leaching of dimethylnitrosoamine. Nature, 262, 394-395. Riskallah, M. R., EI-Sayed, M. M., and Hindi, S. A. (1979). Study within the stability of Leptophos in water below laboratory conditions. Bull. Presque. Contam. Toxicol, 23, 607-614. Waters, Meters. D., Simmon, V. F., Mitchell, A. D., Jorgenson, T. A., and Valencia, R. (1980). Overview of temporary tests for the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of pesticides. T. Environ. Sci. and Hth, BlS, 867-906.

Related